The formation of warts is the most characteristic and frequent manifestation of HPV infection.
Cervical cancer is the most serious consequence of infection by HPV (Human Papilloma Virus), the high-risk virus, particularly serotypes 16 and 18, referred to in the previous article, they are responsible for most cases of this type of cancer.

The types of cancer that are somehow associated with HPV include: cancer of the cervix, anus, vulva, penis and head and neck. Of these, the most important (in the sense that it was one in which is found a higher correlation rate to infection) is cancer of the cervix, considering that 95% of cases or more, are due to HPV .

The transformation into malignant cells is a slow process, and occurs in people who have persistent infection and for a long time. However, this infection can not be associated with events such as warts, which justify the need for regular screening tests.

Regarding the most common signs and symptoms of HPV, the majority of cases the infection with HPV have no symptoms. The virus can however lie dormant in the body for long without manifest, although it can be transmitted. In certain situations, such as during pregnancy or a higher stress phase, in which immune suppression occurs, the virus may develop in different forms.

The formation of warts is the most characteristic and frequent manifestation of HPV infection, the warts are benign hyperproliferative lesions called papillomas also. However, different HPV subtypes are responsible for preferential infection in different areas, being able to cause various diseases.

Warts are usually caused by cutaneous subtypes such as HPV-1 and HPV-2, and may occur in places such as the hands, feet and face, among others. The virus transmission form includes casual contact with infected areas, may occur autoinoculation (spread) to new areas in the same person. This type of expression is often associated with younger individuals, and does not appear to be related to an increased risk for cancer.

The Condyloma acuminata or genital wart is an STD (sexually transmitted disease). There are more than 30 HPV variants that infect the genital region, although the types 6 and 11 are primarily responsible for about 90% of cases and can cause warts on the vulva, penis and anus. These warts occur chiefly in adult populations and sexually active, being more frequent in women (roughly two-thirds of cases).

The respiratory papillomatosis is a rare event which originates the formation of warts along the respiratory tract and can cause obstruction to air passage, forcing the applicants surgical interventions for its excision. Affects infants, children and adults and can be fatal. A child can develop respiratory papillomatosis if the mother is infected with HPV types 6 and 11, passing the infection to the child during delivery.


There are issues that, out of fear, lack of courage or shame, many people are afraid to ask. Experts respond to questions which can also be its
Fear of the diagnosis of a disease, embarrassed to discuss certain topics and unfounded myths related to health are some of the reasons that prevent many patients try to answer your questions in a medical consultation. In various specialties, regardless of the patient’s sex, the reality repeats itself. To end the doubts once and for all, we bring together two experts who agreed to answer questions sometimes difficult to do. Take this opportunity.

Why I wake in the morning with bad breath?

“The causes of bad breath are very varied. You may be suffering from problems in the oral cavity, the area of ​​the sinuses, the respiratory tract or digestive preview. During the night, often in the form of breathing causes dryness of the nasal and oral mucosa. Also taking medications or gastroesophageal reflux may contribute to this condition, “explains Pedro Vale do Lobo, general practitioner, who adds that” good oral hygiene before bedtime or saline into the nostrils can help. ”

Avoid taking drug because of side effects. I can feel all the reactions that appear on the label?

“No. The drug name implies by the health and medical authorities that the notion of your prescription is more beneficial to the health of those who take it than to those who do not. Some people have allergic and / or side effects reactions, but it is a smaller group. The physician should ask the patient about any allergic reactions before prescribing a drug. The prior reading of the bull is essential, “explains Pedro Vale do Lobo, a specialist in general medicine.

After the first few days I forget to take the drugs. It is severe?

“It may possibly be serious if the product has a specific period of effect, since the lack of take can cause complete lack of substance in the body. For example, if you do not take the pill one day there is the possibility of an unwanted pregnancy, but there are cases, such as tablets osteoporosis, where the failure of one day taking in is not a problem, ‘says Peter Vale do Lobo.

After the birth of my son, I lost sexual desire. Is it normal?

“Motherhood is at the center of the feminine universe and the birth of a child is something fantastic, but we must contextualize the family, the relationship with their partner. The baby care should be shared, family tasks must be reorganized because children require attention, but the marital relationship can not be undervalued. We must be rational and reserve space and time for life together, “advises Daniel Pereira da Silva, gynecologist.

I have a strange feeling of tiredness as repeatedly tired Agreement and without reason. Am I sick?

“If the feeling appeared suddenly and without apparent cause, you should consult your doctor for observation and a check-up. If the situation is due to some repair and insufficient sleep, overwork or physical and mental activity, the more fragile emotional state, should fill those circumstances to reverse the situation, “explains the general medicine doctor Pedro Vale do Lobo.

My partner has difficulties in having sex. How should I react?

“You can be in the presence of an erectile dysfunction”, alert the urologist Thomas Lopes. «It must talk openly about it and make your partner look quickly expert advice. This is usually done by a urologist and engagement to perform specific tests. Currently there are simple and highly effective treatments for this problem, “further explains the expert.

Usually I have hemorrhoids and feel unease when I go to the bathroom. What should I do?

“The piles are varicose veins in the anal area. Some foods should be avoided, such as pepper or olives. The intestinal transit should be as normal as possible, contributing to this fiber intake. Diarrhea or constipation can contribute to the worsening of this condition. It is important to have a proper diagnosis because, often, blood in the stool can be a sign of other more serious problems, such as rectal cancer ‘, says Peter Vale do Lobo.

My husband refuses to take the exam of the prostate. How can I convince you?

“By informing him that the exams for regular evaluation of the prostate are simple and easy to do. They include a blood test is the PSA (prostate specific antigen) and the observation of the prostate via digital rectal examination.The greatest fear of man is the digital rectal examination. It should be clarified that this examination performed by an experienced physician is simple, painless and very fast execution, “says Thomas Lopes, urologist.


Pancreatic cancer is one of the cancers that has increased since 2002. Ana Castro, medical expert in oncology, warning that it takes more investment in prevention.

At a time are known to data released by Eurostat of the 28 countries of the European Union, concerning cancer mortality, it is urgent to create and effective implementation of health policies, to enable primary care to the appropriate screenings, base population, and identify risk groups in which to strengthen surveillance for certain type of oncological pathologies, which would otherwise only be diagnosed late.

These new data highlight that come pancreatic cancer, as has already been reported by Globocan, is one of the cancers that has increased since 2002 and is expected to maintain this trend in the coming years. To this contribute a less healthy lifestyle with excessive consumption of fat and alcohol, smoking, diabetes and increasing life expectancy (the most common cancer in people 65 years and older).

Fourth most deadly cancer

Eurostat highlights the mortality of pancreatic cancer, compared with other types of cancer and is indicated as the fourth most deadly cancer – is 78 000 of all deaths associated with cancer. The Statistics Office also points out that Portugal remains a growing trend with regard to mortality from colon cancer, which unlike breast cancer, reflects a population-based screening policy still insufficient.

Based on the latest recommendations of the Health General Directorate on the Cancer Diseases should work to greater investment in conducting population-based surveys and that this should be made a priority.

One way to minimize the increasing pancreatic cancer, as there is no way to scientifically proven screening, may pass through the identification of risk groups and promotion of a monitoring plan for primary health care, in the sense that we can act on early diagnosis and decrease the number of patients with metastatic disease at diagnosis, where it is harder we can intervene successfully.

Although the exact causes are unknown pancreatic cancer, investigations have revealed that individuals with certain risk factors are more likely to develop this cancer. Given these investigations, the factors that can help identify and monitor more closely the risk groups are for example: smoking, high-fat diet, pancreatitis (hereditary or not), diabetes, excessive alcohol consumption.

The General Directorate of Health states that should be developed a set of comprehensive measures in different areas such as smoking cessation and dietary behaviors, which are still undervalued but that in the future may contribute to stabilizing the structural fabric of the health system.

Tobacco and cancer

In this same report is made to the reference impact of smoking on the development of pancreatic cancer, as referred to 30,8% of cases of pancreatic cancer in men is due to smoking.

Given the difficulty of early diagnosis and lack of screening tools, prevention is essential, and can be reinforced by health education and the risk of people monitoring in primary care, with a properly established plan.

In pancreatic cancer if early diagnosis is essential and makes all the difference in the therapeutic plan and purpose of each patient.


We put to the test some beliefs that many people still have to be true. Check out already withstood the scientific knowledge

Your safety is guaranteed 24 hours a day, an extremely intelligent army. It called immune system and defends the body from virus attacks, bacteria and fungi. Comprised by blood and lymphatic system, is welded listed as phagocytes, T cells and antibodies, proteins and cells that circulate in the body fluids. And rather than blindly attack, able to distinguish foreign organisms of friends cells. Its effectiveness depends mainly on the genetic inheritance, but can be influenced by lifestyle. You know what to do to help?

1. We must stimulate the immune system?

No, it’s a myth! Stimulate the immune system too much is as bad as not encouraging at all, both situations can lead to disease. For example, subjecting a child to recurrent infections can lead to disease, but protect it too prevents the immune system to learn how to defend itself against threats. The aim is to regulate and not stimulate the immune system. Contact with nature and have a varied diet, not sterile, early on, help you find that balance.

Stimulate the immune system too much is as bad as not encouraging at all, both situations can lead to disease. For example, subjecting a child to recurrent infections can lead to disease, but protect it too prevents the immune system to learn how to defend itself against threats. The aim is to regulate and not stimulate the immune system.Contact with nature and have a varied diet, not sterile, early on, help you find that balance.

2. Good nutrition helps fend off disease?

Yes it’s true! A varied diet, rich in fresh produce and non-sterile outweighs any dietary supplement, since foods contain many nutrients that work together to promote health. For example, fruit and vegetables are rich in antioxidant nutrients like vitamins C and E, beta carotene, zinc and selenium. Avoid periods of fasting, and drinking alcohol and foods high in sugar and fat.

3. The more I exercise, I am more protected?

No at all! Besides promoting the release of endorphins, hormones associated with well-being, regular physical exercise increases the level of leukocytes, a blood cell that fights infections. However, prolonged strenuous exercise and depresses the immune system. Walking three or more times a week may be sufficient.

4. Can I get a flu or a cold floor for the cold?

This is another myth! It is natural to make membership in the cold, as it is during the winter that usually arise flu outbreaks and that the decrease in body temperature affect the immune response. In fact, flu and colds are caused by viruses, which survive longer when the temperature and ultraviolet radiation are low, but the spread occurs through contact with air or contaminated surfaces. For example, to go places with poor air circulation and touch the face after giving a handshake. To protect yourself, take the flu vaccine, avoid enclosed spaces and wash your hands regularly.

5. If walking stressed or tired, get sick more easily?

Is true! Hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline, released when we are under stress, modify the immune system.During deep sleep, the body releases substances that strengthen, so it is important to sleep well. Heart and hypertension problems are associated with chronic stress and in the long term, the deficit of sleep is associated with increased risk of diabetes and obesity.

6. Outdoor Walking strengthens my defenses?

Yes, it stresses. Take therefore the outdoors. People exposed to natural light (sun) are less vulnerable to infections than those who live and work with artificial light. Laugh and have a stimulating social network is also beneficial.


New Year, improved hearing! This is the objective of GAES – Hearing Centers, entering the spirit of the typical promises January and proposes a set of auditory resolutions that promise to improve hearing.
1. Ask your doctor to clean his ears: sometimes is enough to improve hearing. Use sharp objects worsens the situation and many experts disagree with the use of cotton swabs.

2. Always have a pair of earplugs with you: this way, when in noisy environments or if you feel uncomfortable, you can protect your hearing.

3. Coffee is an ally: a recent study conducted by Brigham and Women’s Hospital indicates the possibility that the intake of coffee reduces the risk of suffering from tinnitus. Women who consumed about one cup of coffee and half of caffeine per day had 15% more likely to suffer from tinnitus, than that consumed about three cups of coffee per day, the experts concluded. The caffeine stimulates the central nervous system, and previous research has shown that caffeine has a direct effect on the inner ear.

4. definitely Give up smoking and stay away from environments with a lot of smoke: a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association points out that the more a person is exposed to cigarette smoke, the more likely to have hearing loss later. Furthermore, smoking during pregnancy affect the fetus and has been associated with increasing hearing loss in adolescents whose mothers smoked while pregnant.

5. Exercise: the truth is that its benefits go far beyond the aesthetic aspect. Fit people tend to suffer less from hearing problems since aerobic exercise increases the flow of oxygen in the system and improves blood circulation to the ears.

6. Eat healthily: a Swedish study showed that a diet restricted calories has a positive effect on hearing, as well as slow down the signs of aging. Also: low magnesium levels may negatively influence the hearing, so bet on foods like avocado, spinach, oats, seeds … Likewise, researchers studied the relationship between various lifestyle factors and sudden deafness, and found that patients They had the habit to eat fresh vegetables daily, more than once daily, had the lowest risk for hearing loss.

7. Enjoy a glass of wine or beer: without exaggeration, the moderate alcohol intake may protect against hearing loss related to age, while drinking excessively has precisely the opposite effect.

8. Turn down the volume: the too loud music increases the risk of suffering from hearing loss. 31% of the Portuguese population, according to a study conducted by GAES, admits that the volume used in headphones is too high, increasing the risk of suffering hearing loss. Continued exposure to loud sounds [above 85 decibels (dB)], can lead to deafness.

9. Drink milk: calcium and vitamin D in milk are essential to keep all the healthy bones of the body and this includes the bones in the ear, especially the cochlea.

10. Make a hearing diagnosis once a year: in this way can outwit any hearing loss.


Portugal is one of the few countries with laws that values ​​seven non-conventional therapies. Learn about and get to know the opinion of experts that recommend
The true calling of non-conventional therapies are in the therapeutic partnership and holistic doctors and therapists can create thinking about what is best for us. The experts we talked with have already found. “The Portuguese legislation is of the few in the world which includes seven non-conventional therapies [acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy, naturopathy, osteopathy, chiropractic, traditional Chinese medicine]. In 2003, the law that legalized six of them was published and in 2013 added one more unconventional therapy [traditional Chinese medicine], ‘says Pedro Ribeiro da Silva, anesthesiologist.

“For the regulation to be concluded, it was still necessary to publish several ordinances that establish, for example, the conditions of offices, insurance, cycles of undergraduate studies, professional certificate … Most of these ordinances has been published, being the next of its termination process “further states the expert, the Lifestyle Division Healthy of Health General Directorate member. It is thus open the way for the consolidation of joint work between Western medicine and non-conventional therapies .

“Western medicine is more biomedical said, while unconventional better understand the join relationship between body and mind and take into account the fact that we are an energy body and energy imbalances can cause disease.More and more doctors to take this approach, although many still think that this is of the spiritual realm, ‘says Mario Cordeiro, one of the leading national pediatricians who, along with other experts we talked with, applaud their potential.

When alternative therapies are an ally

Helena Pinto Ferreira, medical specialist in family medicine, believes that complementary therapies have positive results “in the late 70s, at the end of medical school, I had contact with the Eastern philosophies that had an approach more generally disease , which led me to study acupuncture. During this journey, I contacted with colleagues from several European countries where other complementary approaches were more widespread, such as homeopathy, osteopathy, medicinal plants, some still little known in Portugal. ”

“The positive experience that instilled in me in relation to the advantage of its complementarity with conventional medicine enthused me and wanted to know more,” he complained. “Their usefulness has been positive, especially in certain chronic diseases, patients who take multiple drugs or in situations where conventional treatment is not satisfactory. The benefits depend on the type of treatment and the degree of the disease “, emphasizes the expert.

“But, for the treatment of pain, for example, acupuncture is more effective and has the advantage, allowing to reduce drug therapy, which is very important especially in patients who already take multiple medications due to other health problems,” stresses, Yet. “When conventional therapy does not provide satisfactory results can be beneficial to use unconventional therapy. But each case has to be assessed, it is difficult to give examples. Some studies have been conducted to evaluate the cost / benefit ratio of some complementary therapies by some insurers in European countries, namely the Netherlands and Switzerland, “he says.

The advantages and disadvantages of recourse to these techniques

The results show that patients treated by physicians who, beyond the conventional approach used one or more additional therapeutic lived longer consumed less medicines and fewer resorted to hospitals. “The treatment that has proved cheaper was homeopathy. The low frequency of adverse effects is also another advantage, “says Helena Pinto Ferreira. But not everything is positive. The disadvantages also exist.

“They hold up with the lack of clinical trials to prove its effectiveness and leads to distrust by many doctors, although there is already an extensive literature where the proof of therapeutic action there, but especially in pre-clinical trials. Acupuncture is the most studied therapy and more clinical studies demonstrating evidence in some clinical situations. There are, however, still a long way to go ‘, considers the expert.

“The risk is greater when these unconventional therapies are practiced by professionals who are not doctors when there is no previous diagnosis and may delay proper treatment of diseases that do not improve with these therapies, ‘says yet. Mario Cordeiro, pediatrician, believes in the effectiveness of osteopathy, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, homeopathy. “I have always followed the evolution of non-conventional therapies and believed in its potential,” he points yet.

External influences

“The experience with my father, also a pediatrician, along with the study of human behavior and the holistic view that I received in college led me to understand that complementary therapies had an important role, since it worked with minimal scientific basis , common sense and qualified professionals. I turn often to osteopathy, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine and homeopathy. Often alone, for example in congenital torticollis or baby plagicefalia, “says the expert.

“And would strongly advise in situations of muscle strains, stress, sinus infections and diseases of the respiratory disorders … The various medicines can be articulated, but depends on the case and it should never be forgotten.What can harm the patient is the fact that various medicines observe a competitive behavior and assuming as alternatives to each other. Still, the most worrying is that there are bad professionals. The lack of regulation, there are many charlatans to engage in health, particularly in television programs’, also highlights.

Traditional medicine or alternative medicine?

Neither concepts. Mario Cordeiro, pediatrician, explains why, for the good of the patient, the dynamic between doctor and therapist should be based on logic rather ‘complementary’. “The complementarity between Western medicine and non-conventional therapies should always be analyzed case by case. Must be taken, however, very careful that people do not feel they have to choose to either. Unfortunately, their backs among many professionals with faults on both sides, eventually lead to this, and a clear case is the fact that many people use the alternative name ‘he says.

“The traditional terms or conventional are also erroneous, Chinese medicine, for example, is much older than Western medicine said,” emphasizes the expert. “There is already a predisposition of the user or therapist forcomplementarity between conventional medicine and non-conventional therapies, a fundamental attitude to distinguish between good and bad professionals. I hope that gradually find themselves in hospitals, health centers and clinics the various professional team, “he says.

“There is a lot to have this experience as a physician and know the benefits it brings. Also as user have the best to say of individuals, notably osteopaths, acupuncturists, doctors of Chinese medicine, massage therapists, homeopaths, among others, who have treated me» he says. Pedro Lobo Valley, doctor specializing in family medicine believes in the efficacy of herbal medicine, acupuncture and osteopathy. “It was still a medical student when contacted with therapeutic techniques such as herbal medicine, dietary supplements and dietary” he says.

The power of plants

Pedro Lobo Valley continues to parade memories. “I had a taste for travel and uncovered spaces Reformhaus in Germany, a type of store that did not exist in Portugal and offered very different and interesting options for the well-being,” he recalls. “One can, for example, help prevent constipation while taking echinacea, vitamin C and vitamin D, as well as in some cases of anxiety, hypericum perforatum and valerian turn out to be effective”, assures .

“The intake of a food supplement based valerian and melatonin can be useful, for example, in the case of a person in need of conventional therapy for hypertension, suffering from insomnia case much concurrent state. When the patient does not require surgical treatment for back pain, the use of turmeric-based supplements, glucosamine, chondroitin and the intervention of an osteopath will surely useful. And recurrent urinary tract infections benefit, in terms of prevention, taking cranberry red, ‘says yet.

“No, in other cases, the existence of fewer side effects, relative to drug therapies” is another advantage of pointing. “For example, there musculoskeletal situations where osteopathy can put the various elements of the osteoarticular system in its correct position, relieving tension and pain. Since acupuncture is useful in situations where the patient suffers from pain, such as neuralgia and other citalgias’ stresses.

Safety rules to take into account

A rule gold to the untreated conventional chosen is appropriate is to carry out a correct diagnosis which warnsPedro Lobo’s Valley, just happens “to experience clinic who recommended therapy is the proper. Physicians whouse or seek complementary therapies for patients must have knowledge of both. And the complementary techniques should be practiced by technical schools recognized to ensure their knowledge about pharmacology and therapeutic conventional ‘.

Benefits to public health

“Public health can benefit from the interaction between the various approaches.” So says Pedro Ribeiro da Silva, a physician and member of the Division of Healthy Life Styles of the Directorate General of Saúde. “There are diverse needs in that complementarity between the different approaches can be beneficial for the treatment and healing,” bails. The doctor ensures there benefits for public health with this interaction, subject to compliance with different practices, always acting on behalf of the patient, health promotion and disease prevention.

“For example, I attended a conference on production of a maxillofacial surgeon, the port, which operates very painful cases, such as cancers, in which the effective anesthesia is essential. There are people who can not be anesthetized by conventional processes and, in these situations, the surgeon has been working with an acupuncturist who interferes with the anesthesia and whose action has been successful ever “, ensures it.

3 situations where the alternative medicine is not the solution:

-Chronic diseases

“In urgent cases or conditions with tight medical supervision, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, infectious, and others where there is organ damage. Can be relieved some symptoms associated but always complementary and under regular medical supervision “, considers Helena Pinto Ferreira, doctor.

– Serious diseases

“There are cancer patients who want to avoid chemotherapy or radiotherapy and indulge in the hands of therapies that, however well-being that give, not directly fight the problem”, says Mario Cordeiro, pediatrician.

– Acute Diseases

alternative therapies are not solution ‘cases of acute conditions, serious including appendicitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis or required surgical treatment of pathologies », indicates Pedro Lobo Valley.

Glossary of alternative medicines


It consists in the manual application of needles in the skin which may also be triggered by electrical impulses.Allows “modulate the function of the nervous system, endocrine system, immune system and exocrine glands, ‘says the Portuguese Medical Society of Acupuncture.


Ancient technique that has its application in active ingredients of plant origin. It uses plants and some of its components to obtain a correct stabilization of the body.


It is governed by four principles, the law of similars, experimentation in healthy people, the infinitesimal dosage and unique medicine. “It consists of giving the patient in small doses, a substance which, administered to a healthy person, reproduce the symptoms observed,” describes the Homeopathic Society of Portugal.

Traditional Chinese medicine

Studies the energy balance of the human body. Born in China for thousands of years and groups a set of diverse practices as, for example, acupuncture or use of products derived from plants.


It has the purpose of keeping structural body particularly in terms of tissues such as joints, muscles, ligaments, and others. The technique used is in the hands of the therapist your tools with a view to eliminating the problem and identification of its origin.


Genetic in origin, this very rare disease, which belongs to the group of mucopolysaccharides storage disorders, has no cure. In Portugal affects 15 people
Morquio syndrome type A is an inherited disease of metabolism, extremely rare, chronic, progressive, debilitating and increased morbidity and mortality. It is usually diagnosed in early childhood, each affected individual differently and with varying rates of disease progression and involvement of organs. The new and unique therapy was approved at European level by the European Medicines Agency in April 2014 but in Portugal in early 2015, providing reimbursement process is ongoing, awaiting the opinion of Infarmed.

This therapy is exclusively hospital administration, weekly intravenously on day hospital regime. Like other lysosomal therapies, it has a very high cost, with full refund. Speaking to Prevent, Paula Garcia, Hospital Child Development Center Service pediatrician Coimbra, explains the problem of difficulties in diagnosis, the complications that the disease causes and treatments that already exist for the disease, a genetic disorder very rare with no cure in a group of mucopolysaccharides storage disorders and affects only 15 people in Portugal.

What are the major difficulties in diagnosing children with Morquio syndrome?

The main obstacle to diagnosis is the failure to recognize the physical signs suggestive of the disease. Since this is a very rare disease is of utmost importance that there be disclosure of its existence, investing in training of health professionals. Once recognized the possibility of diagnosis, confirmatory tests are direct and carried out in Portugal.

What are the complications that this disease can bring in terms of health?

Since this is a chronic and progressive disease, complications can be located and the general level of specific organs. The mostly affected are the bones, heart, eyes and lungs. In general, there is very short and the quality of life is compromised.

To be a very rare disease, treatments are costly. Nonetheless, believes that the investment by pharmaceutical laboratories for the study of these diseases is an added advantage for these patients?

Since long time which are used to alleviate the symptomatic therapies long list of complications of this disease.These non-specific treatments are important because they improve the pain and the functioning of the affected organs, but not treat the cause of the disease. The specific therapy that has been developed is unique in the treatment of Morquio A and brings new hope in controlling this disease, therefore, for the advancement of science and improvement of quality of life, it is important that have incentives to create new therapies.

In your opinion, what is the added value of Portugal’s participation in an international clinical trial in this rare disease, as currently happens?

In the background is the recognition of the quality and seriousness of our work.

Para melhorar a qualidade de vida destes doentes, é necessário uma interligação funcional entre diversas estruturas, onde a da saúde é apenas uma das peças do puzzle. È necessário melhorar a política de intervenção a este nível e criar modelos educativos, socioculturais, legislativos e de saúde verdadeiramente centralizados no doente e sua família.

No campo da saúde, a existência de equipas multidisciplinares completas e funcionais que incluam obrigatoriamente os cuidados primários são fundamentais. As associações de doentes deveriam ter um papel ativo nesta dinâmica.


Approximately 60,000 Portuguese suffer from this neurological disorder caused by a brain injury that in serious cases, can lead to a stroke. See all the symptoms to look out

Not all people are equal. Be the personality or physical appearance, we all have something that distinguishes us from others.  However, some differences  are still subject to misunderstanding.  It’s the case of epilepsy,  a manageable condition  that derives from “a small  defect in part or whole brain that causes exist discharges neuronal all at once, “explains neurologist José Lopes Lima. Find out what is hidden  behind this disease, the solutions and then what should or should not do in a crisis.

What causes epilepsy?

The main cause is a brain injury. Can result from a malformation, a trauma at birth, a meningitis in early childhood or later, a tumor or stroke (CVA).  Then what happens is that the brain to heal can form a focus epilepsy, an area where there are stronger discharges that will change the behavior.  There is another form of epilepsy that occurs in apparently normal brains,  but where linkages are not perfect. In these cases, usually  there is heredity.

What are the main signs  warning?

Everything depends on the affected area of the brain. For example, if the hand area, this member may enter a convulsion, but if the whole brain is affected, the individual may fall unconscious and have a generalized seizure that usually lasts a minute or two.  There are other events such as changes in vision, sensitivity or suspension of consciousness for a few minutes.

Epilepsy is curable?

This disease has no cure, but there are already ways to control it. The treatment has always the same purpose. Goes through trying to control every crisis so that the person has a life as normal as possible.

How is it treated?

With drugs that exist today, we got an effective control in most crises. About 60 to 70 percent of patients is well controlled with medications.  It may also be possible to surgery, but is a situation which is only about five percent of cases.

The intervention is very difficult because we first have to locate the focus of epilepsy and it is not always possible, then we have to be sure to get that part of the brain, it will not further affect the patient.  Remaining 20 to the 25 per percent will have to learn to deal with the crisis  for the rest of his life, with the support of the doctor and the family.

How many cases are there in Portugal?

The incidence of the disease is about five per thousand inhabitants. We can say that in Portugal, there are between 50,000 to 60,000 people with epilepsy.

What are the main difficulties faced by those who  have epilepsy?

Discrimination. This often starts by parents, is a seemingly positive discrimination protection, but that turns out to be negative. For example, do not force the child to study and when it comes to school can not keep colleagues not want to comply with the homework.  In addition, young people can be a little tolerant and an epileptic seizure at school can be very misunderstood.

Some teachers also  might think that if a particular student has seizures, it is not worth investing too much in it. As a result, these young people reach adulthood with a personality  fragile and many opportunities  lost learning.


Sofia Lisbon, former vocalist of Silence 4, had everything we wanted but, in no time, the disease pushed her into a long battle that managed to win

“I did not give up”, he says. His career confirms it. Sofia Lisboa lived a quiet existence after the euphoria that the band Leiria generated at its peak. It had everything we wanted. A husband, a job, and soon would have also a baby.But on a Sunday afternoon, the world’s fourth vocalist of Silence fell when he was diagnosed with leukemia.Waiting for her a long, hard battle, who won! “On 19 September, a magnificent Sunday that ended the summer of 2010, answered the phone and my life changed. There was anything wrong in my analysis, the doctor informed me, “he recalls.

More than 24 hours after that phone call, the horror was named due to him. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, blood cancer is characterized by uncontrolled increase in white blood cells. “In my case, I was associated with the mutation of a chromosome, a condition that doctors call Philadelphia positive, which makes even more serious illness. He was 33 years old and was pregnant 14 weeks’ desabafaria in late 2014 in the book “Never give up to live,” written with the help of Natalia Heleno Pereira and edited by Paper Moon.

The excruciating pain

The pain he felt could not have been more atrocious. “I had to immediately begin the treatments and the baby was not viable. Before the fight the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Lisbon (IPO), expected me to return to maternity, which would leave no child in her arms … I had taken the medication, to facilitate surgery interruption. At one point, I felt excruciating pain. Pedro [husband] called a nurse, that almost immediately drew the curtains around the bed and stood beside me, leaving him outside, “he recalls.

“Suddenly, a cold sound in the metal. Then silence. An eerie silence replaced the sound of the cry of life. In my soul opened up a wound that never healed, “he takes the singer. “I was admitted to the hematology unit of the IPO. It was essential to reduce the percentage of cancer cells, which had greatly increased in a few days. For this, he had to start as soon as possible chemotherapy treatments and with them come the inevitable hair loss, “he says.


Hospitalized, his days passed now without a great story. “I talked, read everything he could ward off negative thoughts and tried to sleep, for the time go faster. I was constantly taking exams or receiving some kind of treatment. My whole body was controlled by the medical team millimeter. Having leukemia, the cells that were sick were those which previously protected me from the dangers of the world. The first step was to destroy my immune system, which then and if all went well, would be replaced by a transplant, “explains Sofia Lisbon.

The second cycle of chemotherapy treatment

From the second cycle, the chemotherapy began to be also given by lumbar puncture, and the syringe placed directly between the vertebrae. “This procedure required me to stand still for four hours and caused me excruciating headaches,” he recalls. “Easier to endure the pain was caused by medulogramas [the exam that allows the differential count of cellular elements of the bone marrow], requiring that pierce the bone and is invasive.However, anesthesia is so powerful that the pain disappears rapidly “he says.

“My body always reacted the best way to treatment and went into remission molecular, ie, cancer cells decreased.It seemed that within a few months, it would be possible to transplant, ‘says yet. “The October 21, knew he had a compatible donor, my sister. A bone marrow transplant seems something simpler, closer to the blood transfusion.This perception, some of the donor’s perspective, it is extremely misleading from the perspective of the receiver.What we received does not bring the donor protection, it is rather a neutral ground where we can start from scratch “, considers the singer.

“On May 10, 2011, the day of transplantation, reborn. I started to have two birthdays. A marking the day of my birth and the other marking the day that escaped almost certain death. In fact, it makes perfect sense that the day of transplantation, the day zero, as they call it medical, is seen in this way, because the transplant are fragile like babies, maybe even more, because babies can embrace the world of immediate and we do not. With the immune system of a newborn baby should join me in progressively society so that my weakened organism could adapt to the world hardships and cruelties, “says.

The second battle

After all the walking has realizasa, the worst was yet to come. Literally! “One of the more predictable side effects of a bone marrow transplant is a condition which is called graft versus host, a reaction of the body to the genetic material that is foreign. This condition is desirable for transplant because it is a reflection of a successful transplant. However, should manifest too aggressively can be fatal or turning out into a chronic disease, “explains Sofia Lisbon.

“In my case, it began to manifest after the transplant, but was passed over a year that completely took over my body. It started with a persistent knee pain that extended to the rest of the body. Before long, I lost mobility, could not move me, I could not walk or feed me by my own hands, I was paralyzed, full of pain, which worsened with the increased weight caused by the barbaric doses of cortisone which was necessary take. I, Sofia Lisboa, 35-year-old former lead singer of Silence 4, former teacher of fitness, was completely unrecognizable, “collapsed.

The turning point in the life of Sofia Lisboa

Deal with their image and their new condition was anything but easy. «I found myself with over 25 kilos, lying on a bed, unable to move, covered with hair, wearing diaper, to be fed,” he recalls. “In a body that did not belong to me and only brought me pain, I began to feel the weight of the futility of my life. It was a burden to my family, had stabbing pains, nothing made any sense, existed only to suffer. Was lying in bed at home, unable to get up, “he says.

“I left the house in a wheelchair, only to go to appointments or to receive treatment in the IPO. It was an existence, but it was not a life. The idea of ​​giving up and going from me repeatedly over his head. I started to improve, regain the ability to move. One day, my patience was rewarded. I managed to get up alone », he says. Right now, he thought “Now, no one will stop me!” He says. “As babies make the first move, I would not rest until he could not run. He was eager for life, “bails.

The power of music

In the midst of all the suffering, not everything was bad. “Three years after the phone call that divided my life into two, the second life was about to start and I had a plan. At a time of deep uncertainty, David [Fonseca] promised me he would gather the Silence 4. It was time to call you and throw the challenge “, he says. “We will do it?” He asked.The answer could not have been more convinced. “The day April 5, 2014 was the day of the great concert in Lisbon.In the darkest period of my illness I thought I’d die, “she confessed later.

“That night, I was with my sister and I asked him to let me go,” he says. To the song “Invincible”, the Muse, she asked him to believe that his spirit was invincible. “When I finished singing in concert, I saw that my sister had been brought to the stage. They hugged us. It was an emotional moment that left 18,000 people silent, turning Silence Silence 4 in 18,000. We were all one soul “, believes Sofia Lisbon.

Survival Guide

In the book he published, “Never give up to live”, Sofia Lisbon shares some useful advice that made her win the battle against the disease. These are some of the teachings that sufferers of this condition must take into account:

– Chore all the sadness.
– Dry the tears and believe it will get.
– Know your enemy. Interest to the disease and the various cures. Anything goes!
– Find complementary strategies to improve their health.
– Keep your mind occupied.
– Move.
– Relativize the opinions of others.
– Share what you will in the soul and ask for help when necessary.
– Do not miss the mankind.
– Forgive yourself.
– Break all the rules.


A seizure after a baby falling was the first alarm signal. Learn the story of Salome Oliveira who grew up with this neurological disease that affects about 60,000 Portuguese
He not walked or talked when he suffered the first epileptic seizure. Salome Oliveira was just 10 months old when a seizure after a fall from bed, gave the first warning sign. Today, aged 35, admits it was not easy growing up with a disease that made her different from the other but, thanks to the operation that was submitted a year ago, he regained a new self-esteem and confidence in the future. Up to 10 months, Salome Oliveira was a baby like everyone else. Waiting to show a new surprise, a new grace every day.

A seizure after a fall from bed was the first alarm signal and the beginning of a new cycle, going to live with epilepsy. There were no cases in the family but the diagnosis was immediate and beyond doubt, “they said then it was a seizure but it could be a single crisis or the onset of chronic or benign epilepsy” he explains. The time confirmed the worst case scenario and 34 years ago that Salome Oliveira, like some 60,000 Portuguese, suffers from epilepsy.

Deal with the difference and the gaze of others

Living with epilepsy was not easy for Salome Oliveira, especially at a younger age, causing a huge insecurity and instability. “I was very affected mainly from the social point of view. When I went to school was very active and restless but after I started living with my colleagues the situation changed. They attended to my crises, called me retarded and made fun of me, which is why I began to isolate myself socially, “he reveals.

“He spent the playground sitting alone in a corner or talk to any employee”, also recalls sadly. Unfortunately, an epileptic seizure does not choose the time or place to happen. And in many cases, it is when least expected, away from home and those who feel protected, at the mercy of the discomfort of difference and loneliness. “I’ve had many publicly crises”, he complained.  “For years was sad, angry and ashamed. Then settled down and saw that limitation as many others that certain people have, “she says.

“For example, the Paralympics for me summarize everything. These athletes have many limitations but do not get frustrated thinking about it. Fight! “He stresses.  The importance of seeking help from those who know is critical.Salome Oliveira assumes that the fact that it integrated the Mutual Aid Group (GAM) of People with Epilepsy, an initiative of EPIAPFAPE (Portuguese Association of Family, Friends and People with Epilepsy) contributed much to make you accept herself.

“This group turns out to be a psychological support given by people who go through the same problems,” he explains. Although it started to manage crises, it admits that it is very important that others around us know what is happening with us and she wanted to minimize the lack of information that society has on this disease.”Gradually I realized that people summarized epilepsy seizures, which is not true. Epilepsy encompasses many types of seizures in addition to the seizures, including the ones I had, which were complex partial seizures, “he says.

Learning to live under the gaze of others

To Salome Oliveira was also a learning learn to live with the gaze of others, which is not always easy. But largely it depends on the way we see and we get to see the other. “I felt that others looked at me differently, but now I think I had that impression but it was not true. How I felt with limitations thought the other evaluating me as a different person from the other, “he says.

“But, analyzing and should not be that much because, for example, work in the same company for over 12 years. If look at me differently the option of charge would certainly be another », asserted in 2011, with conviction and confidence in their professional skills. Unfortunately, not all people who suffer from this neurological disease can boast the same fate. All over the world, there are many cases of discrimination.

A new confidence after surgery

Salome Oliveira does not hide that the surgery he underwent last year contributed greatly to an increase in self-esteem. “Fortunately, since 9 October 2009, when he was successfully submitted to an epilepsy surgery in which I was removed from the affected brain part that caused the crisis, I began to feel very different, for better» he says.Today, it has a self-esteem, self-confidence and independence “much larger and hence a degree of anxiety, sensitivity, etc., normalized,” he says.

Before this operation, despite following a rigorous treatment, Salome Oliveira is not afraid to recognize that felt that certain important moments of life escaped him in his hands. “Not now. I feel like those who walk to school.Every day I am learning something. Something prior to seizure control is not passed “, he says. Still, living one day at a time, aware of its limitations. “The most annoying is to be no stability”, he says.

“If you think, for example, enjoy the nice weather on a Sunday to go out and that day had seizures, I felt worst in the post-crisis phase than during the same properly. Lacked physical and psychological strength, appetite, abdominal pain, fatigue, etc., “he explains. Today, after surgery and inner work you acknowledge that you are at a stage where he lives with his quiet possible that the disease affects. “Through the GAM know other people with epilepsy, it is positive and helped me a lot to accept the disease, ‘he says with a smile.

The Salome Oliveira advice for dealing with the disease:

– Enquire

‘Specifically Investigate the problem that has, collect as much information over the internet, magazines, physicians, associations, etc. (without that information becomes absolute certainties) and, in the consultations, put any questions you have. Health is not like mathematics where 2 + 2 is 4 “he says.

– Think positive

“The psychological strength affects the disease but the disease also affects and psychological strength. Think positive, “advises Salome Oliveira.

– Join to help groups

“One thing that helped me to accept my illness was that going to belong to a Mutual Help Group (GAM) of People with Epilepsy. It is an initiative of EPIAPFAPE (Portuguese Association of Family, Friends and People with Epilepsy), which turns out to be a psychological support given by people who go through the same problems “, he says.

Useful contacts

Portuguese Association of Family, Friends and People with Epilepsy
Phone: 226 054 959 (Porto) – 239 482 865 (Coimbra) – 218 474 798 (Lisbon)
Internet:  www.epilepsia.pt/epi